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March 2, 2011

Perilaku Konsumen (Consumer Behavior)

Filed under: SUMARWAN'S BOOKS — ujangsumarwan @ 5:44 pm

Buku teks Perilaku Konsumen ini ditulis untuk memenuhi kebutuhan para konsumen pembaca, yaitu mahasiswa, praktisi bisnis, para eksekutif perusahaan, para pengambil keputusan di lembaga swadaya masyarakat (LSM), maupun di berbagai lembaga pemerintah. Buku ini juga diperuntukkan bagi dosen atau staf pengajar yang mengasuh mata kuliah Perilaku Konsumen, Manajemen Pemasaran, Riset Pasar, Risef Konsumen, Pemasaran Sosial, Manajemen Promosi dan Periklanan, maupun Komunikasi Bisnis dan Pemasaran. Buku ini bisa dipakai sebagai referensi untuk mahasiswa S1 maupun S2.

Buku ini membahas proses pengambilan keputusan konsurnen dalam memilih, membeli, menggunakan, dan mengevaluasi barang atau jasa. Proses pengambilan keputusan ini dipengaruhi oleh faktor psikologis konsumen, seperti motivasi, kepribadian, persepsi, sikap, serta proses komunikasi konsumen. Faktor lainnya yang berpengaruh adalah lingkungan sosial dan budaya dari konsumen. Pemahaman terhadap faktor-faktor tersebut dapat bermanfaat bagi para pemasar atau produsen serta siapa pun yang berkepentingan dengan konsumen untuk mempengaruhi keputusan konsumen dan memperkirakan perilaku konsumen.

Setelah membaca buku ini, pembaca diharapkan dapat memahami faktor-faktor psikologis, sosial budaya konsumen, dan pengaruhnya terhadap proses pengambilan keputusan konsumen tersebut. Pembaca juga dapat menguasai bagaimana teori-teori perilaku konsumen dimanfaatkan oleh para pemasar dan produsen untuk meningkatkan kinerja bisnisnya, dapat menerapkan teori-teori perilaku konsumen dalam menyusun strategi pemasaran, dan dapat mengidentifikasi serta menganalisis perilaku konsumen dan perubahan-perubahan perilaku tersebut sehingga dapat mengembangkan produk dan jasa yang dibutuhkan konsumen.

Buku ini ditulis dengan bahasa yang mudah dipahami dan dengan menjelaskan berbagai konsep perilaku konsumen serta penerapannya dalam bidang pemasaran. Buku ini juga memberikan banyak contoh dan ilustrasi dengan kasus-kasus komunikasi pemasaran perusahaan yang beroperasi di Indonesia. Buku ini mengungkapkan konsep perilaku konsumen dengan nuansa bisnis di Indonesia agar lebih mudah dipahami oleh pembaca. Buku ini banyak menampilkan iklan cetak atau bahan promosi cetak dari berbagai produk dan merek yang beredar di Indonesia. Iklan cetak yang dikutip tersebut telah disebarluaskan ke masyarakat melalui berbagai media cetak dan berbagai media ruang oleh perusahaan yang bersangkutan. Tujuan utama dari pengutipan bahan iklan cetak tersebut adalah untuk memperkaya penjelasan konsep atau teori, sebagai upaya untuk meningkatkan pemahaman aplikasi perilaku konsumen dalam pemasaran. Pengutipan iklan cetak tersebut dilakukan dengan menggunakan prosedur etika pengutipan dalam penulisan karya ilmiah. Pengutipan iklan cetak dilakukan dengan cara mencantumkan sumber atau nama media cetak yang menerbitkan/memuat iklan tersebut dan waktu penerbitan. Jika bahan promosi cetak tersebut tidak dimuat di media cetak, namun sudah tersebar di masyarakat, maka pengutipan dilakukan dengan menyebutkan nama sumber kutipan tersebut diperoleh (misalnya kemasan produk, brosur, katalog, atau bahan promosi cetak lainnya). Hal ini dilakukan untuk menunjukkan bahwa iklan yang dikutip tersebut merupakan hasil karya dari perusahaan yang membuat atau mengeluarkan iklan tersebut. Hak milik dan hak cipta iklan-iklan yang dikutip itu dimiliki oleh perusahaan yang mengeluarkan iklan tersebut. Bahan kutipan tersebut diperlukan untuk memperkaya pembahasan teori dan konsep perilaku konsumen. Sebagian iklan-iklan yang dikutip tanpa disertai nama media cetak yang memuat iklan tersebut. Hal ini dilakukan untuk bahan iklan-iklan yang diperoleh penulis langsung dari perusahaan-perusahaan yang memberikan izin pengutipan iklan itu. Saya sampaikan ucapan terima kasih kepada Bapak Philip S. Purnama, MBA dari PT ISM Bogasari Flourmills, yang telah mengizinkan saya menggunakan iklan cetak dan bahan promosi cetak beberapa produk Bogasari. Ucapan terima kasih dan penghargaan juga disampaikan kepada Bapak Anggoro Eko Cahyo dari Card Center PT Bank BNI, Bapak Muhammad Arief dari PT Danone Indonesia, Bapak Rian Partama dari PT Arnott’s Indonesia, Bapak Edin Saefudin dari PT Syngenta Indonesia, Bapak Johanes Kitono dari PT Charoen Pokphand Indonesia,

Bapak Budiono dari PT Reckitt Benckiser Indonesia, yang telah memberikan bahan promosi cetak maupun elektronik file kepada saya untuk digunakan dalam buku ini.

Buku ini terdiri atas lima bagian. Bagian pertama berisi satu bab, yaitu Bab 1 Pendahuluan, yang menguraikan mengenai pengertian perilaku konsumen, arti konsumen, sejarah disiplin perilaku konsumen, dan siapa yang berkepentingan dengan perilaku konsumen. Bab Pendahuluan diakhiri dengan uraian model pengambilan keputusan yang dijadikan sebagai landasan konseptual dalam buku teks ini. Bagian kedua disebut sebagai Perbedaan Individu Konsumen, yang menguraikan faktor-faktor perbedaan individu yang mempengaruhi keputusan konsumen. Bagian dua terdiri atas enam bab (Bab 2 sampai Bab 7). Bab 2 membahas kebutuhan dan motivasi konsumen. Bab 3 membahas kepribadian konsumen. Bab 4 membahas pengolahan informasi dan persepsi konsumen. Bab 5 membahas proses belajar konsumen. Bab 6 membahas pengetahuan konsumen dan Bab 7 membahas sikap konsumen. Bagian ketiga disebut sebagai Faktor Lingkungan Konsumen, yang menguraikan faktor-faktor lingkungan yang mempengaruhi keputusan konsumen. Bagian ketiga terdiri atas lima bab (Bab 8 sampai Bab 12). Bab 8 membahas budaya, Bab 9 membahas karakteristik sosial ekonomi konsumen, Bab 10 membahas mengenai keluarga dan rumah tangga, Bab 11 membahas kelompok acuan, dan Bab 12 membahas situasi konsumen. Bagian keempat disebut sebagai Proses Keputusan Konsumen, yang menguraikan mengenai tahap-tahap proses keputusan konsumen. Bagian keempat terdiri atas dua bab. Bab 13 menguraikan pengenalan kebutuhan, pencarian informasi, dan evaluasi alternatif. Bab 14 membahas mengenai tahap pembelian, pemakaian, dan kepuasan konsumen. Bagian kelima terdiri atas satu bab, yaitu Bab 15, yang menguraikan mengenai tanggung jawab sosial terhadap konsumen.

Download Deskripsi Singkat tentang Buku Perilaku Konsumen (Consumer Behavior) Pdf

Pemasaran Strategik

Filed under: SUMARWAN'S BOOKS — ujangsumarwan @ 5:23 pm

Perspektif Value Based Marketing dan Pengukuran Kinerja

SINOPSIS
Pemasaran strategik menguraikan bagaimana sebuah perusahaan harus memahami konsumen, sehingga dapat menyusun strategi pemasarannya untuk mencapai tujuan-tujuan perusahaan guna meningkatkan kinerja perusahaan dan menciptakan nilai tambah bagi pemegang saham.

Pemasaran adalah memahami berbagai kebutuhan para pelanggan dan mengembangkan sebuah proposisi untuk menawarkan nilai yang superior. Melalui penyediaan nilai pelanggan yang lebih tinggi maka manajemen dapat memberikan dan menghasilkan nilai yang lebih tinggi pula kepada para pemegang saham.

Nilai suatu merek dagang terbentuk dari kepercayaan para pelanggan terhadap merek dagang perusahaan. Kepercayaan ini membentuk relasi antara merek dan pelanggan yang mendorong preferensi, loyalitas merek, dan keinginan untuk mempertimbangkan produk dan jasa baru yang ditawarkan perusahaan di masa depan dengan merek tersebut. Buku ini juga menguraikan bagaimana langkah-langkah untuk membangun ekuitas merek serta menjelaskan beberapa metode untuk mengukur ekuitas merek.

 

BUKU PEMASARAN STRATEGIK PDF File

Sales Efficiency of the Indonesian Retail Bond (ORI) and Its Implications on Marketing Strategy

Filed under: Karya ilmiah — Tags: , , , — achsani @ 2:45 pm

Susy Liestiowaty
Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: susylies@yahoo.com

Ujang Sumarwan
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: sumarwan@mma.ipb.ac.id

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com and achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id

Nunung Nuryartono
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Business Management
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aims to assess the efficiency of the Indonesian Government Retail Bond known as ORI (Indonesian Retail Bonds) at every branch of BRI (Bank Rakyat Indonesia, an Indonesian commercial bank) in order to obtain a comprehensive study on marketing strategy of ORI that is applicable for the Bank. The method used to analyze the efficiency is SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) method, using number of marketers and marketing costs (marketing promotion cost plus overhead costs) as inputs, while the output is selling fee income of each branch.

The five branches of BRI, namely: Jakarta Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Hayam Wuruk, Kramat Jakarta, Medan Iskandar Muda and Jayapura become the five most efficient branches in conducting sales of ORI001-005. Those branches have average cost per marketers ranges from Rp.533.750 to Rp.1.036.173 while their ORI sales target ranging from Rp.220.000.000 to Rp.7.921.666.667.

Based on the research results, the effective marketing strategy that can be applied to all branches of BRI is to set the sales target of Rp.1.494.000.000 and marketing cost of Rp.1.036.173 (which consists of marketing/promotion cost and marketers’ overhead cost) in order to obtain a profit of Rp.5.754.736 per-marketer.

Keywords: ORI, Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, Marketing Strategy

Artikel selengkapnya dalam format pdf : Klik disini
Sumber: http://www.eurojournals.com

Sales Efficiency of the Indonesian Retail Bond (ORI) and Its Implications on Marketing Strategy

Filed under: Karya ilmiah — Tags: , , , — achsani @ 7:45 am

Susy Liestiowaty
Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: susylies@yahoo.com

Ujang Sumarwan
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: sumarwan@mma.ipb.ac.id

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com and achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id

Nunung Nuryartono
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Business Management
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aims to assess the efficiency of the Indonesian Government Retail Bond known as ORI (Indonesian Retail Bonds) at every branch of BRI (Bank Rakyat Indonesia, an Indonesian commercial bank) in order to obtain a comprehensive study on marketing strategy of ORI that is applicable for the Bank. The method used to analyze the efficiency is SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) method, using number of marketers and marketing costs (marketing promotion cost plus overhead costs) as inputs, while the output is selling fee income of each branch.

The five branches of BRI, namely: Jakarta Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Hayam Wuruk, Kramat Jakarta, Medan Iskandar Muda and Jayapura become the five most efficient branches in conducting sales of ORI001-005. Those branches have average cost per marketers ranges from Rp.533.750 to Rp.1.036.173 while their ORI sales target ranging from Rp.220.000.000 to Rp.7.921.666.667.

Based on the research results, the effective marketing strategy that can be applied to all branches of BRI is to set the sales target of Rp.1.494.000.000 and marketing cost of Rp.1.036.173 (which consists of marketing/promotion cost and marketers’ overhead cost) in order to obtain a profit of Rp.5.754.736 per-marketer.

Keywords: ORI, Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, Marketing Strategy

Artikel selengkapnya dalam format pdf : Klik disini
Sumber: http://www.eurojournals.com

Sales Efficiency of the Indonesian Retail Bond (ORI) and Its Implications on Marketing Strategy

Filed under: Karya ilmiah — Tags: , , , — achsani @ 7:45 am

Susy Liestiowaty
Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: susylies@yahoo.com

Ujang Sumarwan
Department of Family and Consumer Sciences and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: sumarwan@mma.ipb.ac.id

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com and achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id

Nunung Nuryartono
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Business Management
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia

Abstract

This study aims to assess the efficiency of the Indonesian Government Retail Bond known as ORI (Indonesian Retail Bonds) at every branch of BRI (Bank Rakyat Indonesia, an Indonesian commercial bank) in order to obtain a comprehensive study on marketing strategy of ORI that is applicable for the Bank. The method used to analyze the efficiency is SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis) method, using number of marketers and marketing costs (marketing promotion cost plus overhead costs) as inputs, while the output is selling fee income of each branch.

The five branches of BRI, namely: Jakarta Pasar Minggu, Jakarta Hayam Wuruk, Kramat Jakarta, Medan Iskandar Muda and Jayapura become the five most efficient branches in conducting sales of ORI001-005. Those branches have average cost per marketers ranges from Rp.533.750 to Rp.1.036.173 while their ORI sales target ranging from Rp.220.000.000 to Rp.7.921.666.667.

Based on the research results, the effective marketing strategy that can be applied to all branches of BRI is to set the sales target of Rp.1.494.000.000 and marketing cost of Rp.1.036.173 (which consists of marketing/promotion cost and marketers’ overhead cost) in order to obtain a profit of Rp.5.754.736 per-marketer.

Keywords: ORI, Efficiency, Stochastic Frontier Analysis, Marketing Strategy

Artikel selengkapnya dalam format pdf : Klik disini
Sumber: http://www.eurojournals.com

November 2, 2010

Similarity of Economic Structure among Asean+3 Economies: A Multivariate analysis based on Maastricht Treaty Criterion

Filed under: Karya ilmiah — Tags: , , , , — achsani @ 7:11 am

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mial: achsani@yahoo.com (preferred) or achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id

Hari Wijayanto
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: hari@ipb.ac.id

Almufidha Agustyarti
Department of Statistics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: aola_sweety@yahoo.com

Dina Lianitasari
Brighten Institute, Jalan Merak No 14 Bogor, Indonesia
E-mail: dina_lianitasari@yahoo.com

Abstract

The success story of the EU in establishing a single market in 1999 have motivated ASEAN region to further integrate their economy towards ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2020. Theoretically, economic integration can succeed, when there is homogeneity among the member countries. The purpose of this paper is to classify the economy of ASEAN+3 countries based on Maastricht Treaty Criterion using k-means clustering analysis. Then, multivariate statistical analysis using biplot and procrustes will be applied for observing the characteristic differences between two periods, i.e. before the Asian economic crisis (1996-2001) and after the crisis (2002-2006).

The results show that there are still some clusters among ASEAN+3 countries. The advanced countries tend to gather in one cluster, while the developing countries gather in another cluster. Furthermore, the results also suggest that the configurations tend to be stable over time, i.e. in the crisis period and in the period after the crisis. The advanced countries do not have any great movements and therefore they are more stable in compare to the developing countries in the region. As a result, the integration process among ASEAN+3 countries should be handled carefully. Otherwise, the integration will not function well and the benefits of the integration will mainly goes to the more developed countries as warned by Yamazawa.

Keywords: ASEAN+3, economic integration, clustering, biplot, procrustes

Artikel selengkapnya dalam PDF File Klik disini

Sumber: http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_16_03_08.pdf

The Relationship between Inflation and Real Exchange Rate: Comparative Study between ASEAN+3, the EU and North America

Filed under: Karya ilmiah — Tags: , , — achsani @ 6:53 am

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and International Centre for Applied Finance and Economics,  Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com (preferred) or achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id
Tel. +62-251-8377662; Fax. +62-251-8377896

Arie Jayanthy F A Fauzi
Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: ariesangputriraja@yahoo.com
Tel: +62-251-8313813; Fax: +62-251-8318515

Piter Abdullah
Center for Central Banking Research, Bank Indonesia
E-mail: piter@bi.go.id

Abstract

Inflation has always been one of the most important macroeconomic issues. Due to this importance, a study concerning the factors associated with the behavior of inflation needs to be done. This paper will be devoted to analyze the relevance of inflation with the exchange rates. The research will try to compare the response or sensitivity of inflation to the changes in real exchange rates in Asia (ASEAN +3) and compare the result with those
of the EU and North America.

Using explorative statistical analysis and Granger-causality test, we found that there is a strong correlation between the movements of inflation with real exchange rate in most countries to be analyzed. For Asia, there is a significant one-way causal relationship, where the nominal and real exchange rates have a significant impact on the rate of inflation. On the other hand, in the Non-Asian regions, the causal relationship seems to be in the opposite direction. Furthermore, using panel data model with fixed effects, we found that the response or sensitivity of inflation to the changes in exchange rates in Asia is higher in compare to those in the EU and North America.

Keywords: Inflation, exchange rates, panel data

Artikel Selangkapnya dalam PDF File  Klik disini

Sumber : http://www.eurojournals.com/ejefas_18_06.pdf

Determinant of Corporate Financial Distress in an Emerging Market Economy: Empirical Evidence from the Indonesian Stock Exchange 2004-2008

Koes Pranowo
Graduate School of Management and Business Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Graduate Program of Management ABFI Institute of Perbanas Jakarta, Indonesia
E-mail: kpranowo@gmail.com (preferred) or koes@sism.co.id

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com (preferred) or achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id

Adler H.Manurung
Graduate School of Management and Business Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Graduate Program of Management ABFI Institute of Perbanas Jakarta, Indonesia
E-mail: manurung_adler@yahoo.com

Nunung Nuryartono
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: nuryartono@yahoo.com

Abstract
This study empirically examines the dynamics of corporate financial distress of public companies (non financial companies) in Indonesian (IDX) for the period of 2004- 2008. Using panel data regression, we analyze internal and external factors affecting corporate financial distress. To distinguish the status of financial condition, the process of integral corporate financial distress is classified into four steps: good, early impairment,deterioration and cash flow problem companies.

The results show that current ratio (CR), efficiency (Eff), equity (EQ) and dummy variable of the status good financial condition (D3) have positive and significant influences to Debt Service Coverage (DSC) as a proxy of financial distress. On the other hand, leverage (Lev) has a negative and significant relation with DSC. Other variables such as profit, retain earning (RE), good corporate governance (GCG) and macroeconomic factor have no significant impact on the status of corporate financial distress. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that profitable companies should not be a guarantee that the companies can survive to fulfill its liabilities. Liquidity of companies which can be a prominent point can be recognized by evaluating cash flow performance.

Keywords: Debt Service Coverage (DSC), Panel Data, Corporate Financial Distress,Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX).

Artikel selengkapnya dalam PDF File Klik Disini

The Dynamics of Corporate Financial Distress in Emerging Market Economy: Empirical Evidence from the Indonesian Stock Exchange 2004-2008

Koes Pranowo
Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Magister of Management Post Graduate Program, ABFII Institute of Perbanas, Indonesia
E-mail: kpranowo@gmail.com (preferred) or koes@sism.co.id

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com (preferred) or achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id

Adler H.Manurung
Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
Magister of Management Post Graduate Program, ABFII Institute of Perbanas, Indonesia
E-mail: manurung_adler@yahoo.com

Nunung Nuryartono
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business
Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: nuryartono@yahoo.com

Abstract

This paper empirically examines the dynamics of financial distress among non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange (IDX) during the period of 2004-2008. Two different events affected the performance of public companies being financial distress. In 2005, there was an oil price shock when the government cut off subsidy for local oil price. Another event in 2007-2008 is the impact of sub-prime mortgage in the USA, where US Dollar repatriation makes global financial crisis included Indonesia.

Mostly, financial burden of public companies in Indonesia are cost of money, mainly due to having bank loan and issuing corporate bond. Therefore, the analysis uses Debt Service Coverage (DSC) as a proxy financial distress. DSC becomes one of the most important indicators for commercial bank to see financial condition prior to lending as well as underwriting of bond issuance. This paper would also analyze corporate financial distress by mapping companies in to the steps of process integral financial distress in declining financial performance from good companies, early impairment, deterioration and cashflow problem. Furthermore, mapping will also been done for five different industrial sectors, i.e. agricultural business, mining, manufacture, contruction/properties and services/trade.

The results show that oil price shock and sub-prime mortgage crisis have different impacts on the financial performance of the companies listed on the IDX. The impacts seem also varies across different industrial sectors. The evidence indicated that the mining companies are the most affected companies by global financial crisis in 2008, whereas manufacturing companies are the most affected companies by oil price shock in 2005.

Keywords: Debt Service Coverage (DSC), Corporate Financial Distress, Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX).

Artikel lengkapnya dalam format PDF Klik Disini

August 19, 2010

Testing the Feasibility of ASEAN+3 Single Currency Comparing Optimum Currency Area and Clustering Approach

Filed under: Karya ilmiah — achsani @ 2:50 pm

Noer Azam Achsani
Department of Economics and Graduate School of Management and Business, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: achsani@yahoo.com (preferred) or achsani@mb.ipb.ac.id
Tel: +62-251-8313813; Fax: +62-251-8318515

Titis Partisiwi
Department of Economics, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia
E-mail: tiesdende@yahoo.co.id
Tel: +62-251-8626602; Fax: +62-251-8626602

Abstract

This paper analyzes the possibility of currency integration among ASEAN+3 countries, which consists of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Philippines, Thailand, China, Japan, and South Korea. Two different methods are employed, i.e. the exchange rate variability based on OCA index and hierarchical clustering analysis.

The result showed that Singapore Dollar was the most stable currency in the region during the period of analysis. Furthermore, both methods confirm that the ASEAN+3 single currency –if it will be established– should start with Malaysia and Singapore, followed then by Japan, Thailand, South Korea and China. On the other hand, Indonesia seems to be lag behind and therefore this country should work harder to join the single currency.

Keywords: ASEAN+3, economic integration, optimum currency area, single currency.
JEL Classification Codes: E32, F02, F15, F31

Artikel selengkapnya : PDF Files

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